According to AbbreviationFinder, UNCTAD, acronym for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [ju ː na ɪ t ɪ d ne ɪ ʃ nz k ɔ nfərəns ɔ n tre ɪ d ənd d ɪ veləpmənt, English], UNCTAD, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, special body of the UN General Assembly, founded in 1964. General Assemblies of (2017) 194 member countries (all member countries of the United Nations and the Holy See) usually take place every four years (UNCTAD conferences): 1964 in Geneva (UNCTAD I), 1968 in New Delhi (UNCTAD II), 1972 in Santiago de Chile (UNCTAD III), 1976 in Nairobi (UNCTAD IV), 1979 in Manila (UNCTAD V), 1983 in Belgrade (UNCTAD VI), 1987 in Geneva (UNCTAD VII), 1992 in Cartagena (UNCTAD VIII), 1996 in Midrand (near Johannesburg; UNCTAD IX), 2000 in Bangkok (UNCTAD X), 2004 in São Paulo (UNCTAD XI), 2008 in Accra (UNCTAD XII), 2012 in Doha (UNCTAD XIII), 2016 in Nairobi (UNCTAD XIV).
The permanent body between the conferences is the Trade and Development Board (English: Trade and Development Board, abbreviation TDB), which meets one to three times a year; there are also three committees for various issues; The administrative body is the permanent secretariat (seat: Geneva). The Secretary General is appointed by the UN Secretary General and confirmed by the UN General Assembly; he usually comes from a developing country.
The trigger for the founding of UNCTAD was the dissatisfaction of the developing countries in the group of 77 with the international economic organizations (especially GATT and the International Monetary Fund), IMF), which were accused of a one-sided orientation towards the interests of the western industrialized countries. The main objective of UNCTAD is to promote the restructuring of world trade in favor of developing countries and trade between developing countries. The main points of discussion at the UNCTAD conferences so far have been: special conditions for developing countries within the framework of the GATT (e.g. tariff preferences), target formulations for the net capital transfer to developing countries or official development aid, representation of the interests of developing countries in the IMF with the aim of creating special provisions for countries with structural problems and to achieve an integrated raw materials program for particularly poor countries, Creation of a new world economic order, strengthening of South-South cooperation, dismantling of non-tariff trade barriers, promotion of technology transfer, solution of the international debt crisis, problems of globalization and liberalization of the world economy, technical assistance for developing countries and international cooperation, restructuring of UNCTAD (among other things, the number of committees was reduced from seven to three) and development strategies. The focus of the last conference was on increasing economic growth and economic development through the interaction of national development strategy and globalization.
United Nations, abbreviation UN, English United Nations, abbreviation UN, to designate the “Organization of the UN”, English United Nations Organization, abbreviation UNO, or French Organization des Nations Unies, abbreviation ONU, association of states for securing world peace and promoting international cooperation.
The UN are now a complex structure of organizations, special organs, programs, etc. In the narrower sense – and in a more general understanding – the UN is equated with the UN; UN, the specialized agencies and the affiliated organizations. In 2001 the UN was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
The UN is endowed with international legal personality; they and their officials enjoy special privileges and immunities. Its headquarters are in New York, with official offices in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi (Kenya). Since 1996 there are also some UN institutions in Bonn. The working languages are English and French; official languages are also Russian, Spanish, Chinese and Arabic. The regular two-year budget (compulsory contributions from the member states) amounts to US $ 5.4 billion for 2016/17. According to the contribution key for the period 2016–18, Germany’s contribution to the UN budget is 6.39%; this makes Germany the fourth largest contributor. The US contribution rate is 22%, Japan’s 9.68%, and China’s 7.92%.
The goals of the UN are to maintain peace and international security through collective support against war of aggression or the use of force, peaceful settlement of all disputes, friendly cooperation between members, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The UN members are committed to the principles of equality of states, loyalty to treaties, renouncing the use of force in international relations and the right of peoples to self-determination. The members are obliged to settle international disputes among one another peacefully and to support the goals of the UN and the coercive measures ordered by it. According to the UN Charter (statute), the UN may not intervene in questions which by their nature belong to the national competence of a member state. humanitarian intervention).
The UN statute (charter) distinguishes between the original members and the later admitted states. Admission is open to peace-loving states that recognize the obligations of the statute for themselves. The General Assembly decides on the admission in cooperation with the Security Council. Exclusion and suspension of a member as well as resignation are possible. In addition to full membership, there is the possibility of working in the UN as an observer with restricted rights. The UN has (2020) 193 member states, i. H. all states except Vatican City as well as areas not generally recognized as states internationally (Kosovo, Taiwan or Republic of China, Western Sahara); the Holy See and Palestine have “non-member observer status”.
Areas of responsibility
The maintenance of world peace and security is undoubtedly a political priority, including: by the UN peacekeeping forces, which as a rule have no combat mission (exception: mandates for “robust peacekeeping”). In the wake of decolonization, in addition to securing peace, development policy emerged as one of the central areas of responsibility of the UN. In the meantime, around 70% of the resources in the UN system are used for development cooperation. The UN pays particular attention to the protection of human rights, including: by the Human Rights Council (UN Human Rights Council), the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Human Rights Center. Furthermore, the UN advocates the further development of international law, the improvement of the situation of refugees and the prosecution of war crimes (war crimes tribunal). Changed international framework conditions and new challenges (such as environmental and drug problems as well as international terrorism) have led to a considerable expansion of the catalog of tasks and fields of activity in the UN system.