The semantic field, in linguistics, is one that forms a group of words that share one or more features in their meaning.
In our language there are many words or lexical units among which we can recognize similar aspects. For example, we can say that fence, wall and wall share the same semantic field because the three words designate barriers.
All words belong to different lexical fields. Thus, we can say that light bulb shares semantic field with candle, but also with artificial light or electricity, unlike candle, which would be in the same semantic field as fire.
Types of semantic fields
Semantic fields can be classified in many ways, fundamentally depending on the relationships that are identified between the elements that make them up. Here are some types of semantic fields:
Closed semantic field
It is one to which new elements can no longer be added, since it already forms a complete field. For example: the days of the week, which are only seven, or the months of the year, which are twelve.
Open semantic field
It is the one to which we can always add new terms. For example, computer accessories: camera, keyboard, mouse, pen drive, headphones, etc.
Gradual semantic field
It is the type of field in which the elements imply a scale with its different nuances. For example, moods: enthusiastic, happy, cheerful, joyful, joyful, blissful, happy.
Semantic Fields Antonyms
They are those formed by words between which relations of opposition are established. For example: happy / sad, peace / war, night / day.
Associative semantic field
It is the one that conforms due to the proximity of the reality they refer. For example, forest, tree, jungle, breña, flora, fauna, wild, shadow. This type of association is usually more subjective.
Examples of semantic fields
- Semantic field of animals: dog, cat, pigeon, lion, mouse, elephant, giraffe, chimpanzee, puma.
- Semantic fruit field: apple, orange, pear, strawberry, tangerine, melon, watermelon, peach.
- Semantic field of flowers: rose, sunflower, hydrangea, tulip, dahlia, lily, carnation, cherry blossom, orchid, daisy.