According to Abbreviationfinder, DNA stands for the deoxyribonucleic acid, a biopolymer that comprises the genetic material harboring cells. DNA has the genetic information that living things use to function and allows this information to be transmitted through inheritance.
DNA is made up of a sequence of simple units, called nucleotides (which, in turn, are made up of a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and a sugar). When a DNA molecule is artificially formed from the union of different DNA sequences that come from two different organisms, we are talking about recombinant DNA.
Recombinant DNA can be said to be an artificial DNA molecule. When this molecule created in vitro is introduced into an organism, a genetic alteration takes place that modifies its features.
The arrival at the creation and development of recombinant DNA we must emphasize that they occurred after researchers carried out numerous studies on the knowledge of restriction enzymes, the replication of viruses and plasmids, the replication and repair of DNA or the chemical synthesis of what is called nucleotide sequences.
Specifically, it must be stated that a key factor in the aforementioned DNA was considered to be none other than the set of projects carried out by Hamilton O. Smith and Daniel Nathans in the 1970s. More specifically, we refer to the they rushed to discover endonuclease proteins, which are also known by the name of restriction enzymes.
To all the above we can add that it is very necessary to know that the recombinant DNA technique is currently used to a great extent both in the development of what are transgenic organisms and in the regulation of the production of protein synthesis, such as the case of insulin. The process itself of the production of the aforementioned DNA can be determined to be made up of six clearly defined phases:
-Preparation of the DNA sequence in order to undertake the relevant cloning.
-The subsequent preparation of the cloning vector to be used.
-The formation of the recombinant DNA itself.
-The introduction of that in the host cell.
-The propagation of the crop.
-What would be the detection and selection of the recombinant clones.
For the development of recombinant DNA, biologists first work with a DNA molecule from a bacterium, virus, plant, or other organism, manipulating it in the laboratory. Then they introduce this molecule into a different organism. This practice can be useful for creating vaccines or treating certain diseases.
The generation of recombinant DNA involves the propagation of a DNA sequence that harbors a particular interest, to take it to an organism that does not have that sequence and, therefore, neither of its products. From these processes, it is possible to obtain genetically altered microorganisms to develop drugs, obtain transgenic foods and create plants that resist the attack of pests.