The bullying or school bullying refers to a type of violent behavior and intimidation exerted verbal, physical or psychological way among children and adolescents during the school years.
It is a series of continuous abuse that is carried out intentionally by one or more aggressors, with the purpose of assaulting, generating insecurity or obstructing their school development of the victim.
The word bullying derives from English and can be translated into Spanish as ‘bullying’ or ‘bullying’.
The bullying practiced often against children or young people who are characterized by being obsequious, have difficulty defend themselves, have low self – esteem, be unsafe or because they differ from their peers for various reasons.
This type of abuse can occur in different places, such as in public spaces or parks, but it is fundamentally related to the school environment, so it affects children and adolescents in their relationships with their fellow students.
Generally, bullying begins with teasing that intensifies until, in many cases, it results in physical or verbal aggressions that, as a consequence, generate psychological and emotional damage in the affected individual.
Also, bullying is related to the dynamics of abuse of power, through which an individual humiliates another to feel superior, for this he uses all kinds of aggressions such as teasing, insults or physical abuse. As a result, the victim feels fearful of her aggressors and seeks to avoid them.
It should be noted that situations of harassment that take place outside the school environment, such as at work, spaces for human development or isolated episodes of abuse, are not called bullying . In such cases, the right thing would be to talk about intimidation, harassment, abuse, harassment or rape.
Types of bullying
Below are the different types of bullying that exist:
- Verbal bullying: characterized by the use of insults, teasing, nicknames, gossip, rumors, threats and humiliations that affect the individual psychologically and lead to discrimination.
- Physical bullying: it is the most common among students. It includes all kinds of physical aggressions such as blows, kicks or pushes that can be executed by one or more aggressors.
- Social bullying: is one that seeks to isolate or exclude the child or adolescent from a social group. This is achieved through social or economic discrimination, indifferent treatment, among others.
- Cyberbullying: also known as cyberbullying. In this case, the aggressor uses social networks and other technological resources to harass the victim and send false messages. These communication channels are wide-ranging and the messages spread much faster.
- Sexual bullying: it is a type of siege of sexual connotation or abuse, in the most serious cases. In this case, girls are usually the main victims, as are homosexual individuals.
Features of the bullying
The main characteristics of bullying are the following:
- It can be performed by an individual or a group of attackers.
- It is usually practiced for a certain period.
- The aggressor has a feeling of superiority, which is transmitted by the submission or fear of the harassed individual.
- The most common ways in which it is presented are aggressions, insult threats, dirty games, traps, nicknames, among others.
Consequences of bullying
Individuals who are victims of bullying may have some of the following symptoms:
- Sleep disturbances
- Eating disorders
- Lack of appetite
- Destructive thoughts, such as the desire to die
In many cases, victims must be directed to therapy to treat the psychological marks left by the aggression.