Bourgeois is the individual belonging to the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie, as such, is a dominant social class in capitalist systems, which owns the means of production, commerce and finance. In this sense, when a person is designated as bourgeois, reference is being made to belonging to the wealthy class, owner of property and capital.
The bourgeoisie, meanwhile, is divided into different levels, according to the amount of capital held. There is the high bourgeoisie, which is the highest economic level, constituted by owners of industries or businesses, or of high professional rank, such as bankers, industrialists or executives.
On the other hand, there is the middle bourgeoisie, made up of individuals who practice liberal professions, and, finally, the petty bourgeoisie, made up of people with a good economic situation, owners of small businesses or businesses.
The bourgeoisie, as such, originated in the Middle Ages, in Europe. It was a social group consisting mainly of artisans and merchants enriched in commercial practice. Its growth was such that it would break in some centuries later expressing its values and interests, and demanding equality, freedom and progress, in events such as the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Although at first the bourgeoisie was despised by the nobility, from the nineteenth century began an unstoppable growth through which it became the dominant class in the political, economic and social life of the capitalist nations.
The expression “bourgeois” also often used with derogatory connotations , to refer to an individual possessing wealth, but vulgar, mediocre or lacking in good taste. It is also used to refer to conservative people, only interested in their economic well-being and social stability. They are also often called petty bourgeois.
Bourgeois in the Middle Ages
The bourgeois appears in the high Middle Ages. The term was used to refer to that person who lived or was a native of the borough. The borough , as such, was a fortified place built on the outskirts of the main city by the feudal lord for free merchants and artisans to settle, who were not servants of the feudal lord, but also not part of the nobility or clergy.
Bourgeois and proletarian
The fundamental difference between the bourgeois individual and the proletarian is that the former is part of the wealthy class, possessing property and capital, while the proletarian is one belonging to the working class who, as such, lacks property and property, so that to ensure subsistence offers its productive force in the execution of work in the industry and in manual labor, in exchange for a salary. From the point of view of Marxist theory, the bourgeois and the proletarian are opposite factors in the class struggle scheme.
Bourgeois according to Karl Marx
According to the German philosopher Karl Marx, chief ideologist of communism, is referred to as bourgeois that individual belonging to the middle class, a minority that makes up the social class dominant in, owner of capital, capitalist systems of the means of production (industrial bourgeoisie) , of the market (commercial or commercial bourgeoisie), and of the banks (financial bourgeoisie). He conceives it as the oppressive class of the proletariat.