In the southwestern United States is the capital and largest city of Arizona – Phoenix. It is the seat of Maricopa County and is also the fifth largest city in the United States. It was founded on February 25, 1881 and named the Navajo Indian name Hoozdo, which meant “hot place.” Sometimes the Apache name Fiinigis was also used, from which the present name of the city probably eventually emerged.
The history of the city dates back to 700, when the seat of the Hohokam Indian tribe was located here. Over the centuries, these people have built over 200 km of irrigation canals, making the otherwise dry Arizona soil fertile and suitable for agriculture. Part of the route of these canals has been used in modern times to build the Arizona Canal, the Central Arizona Project Canal and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. However, the original inhabitants of the area left this area for unknown reasons and no one knows where they went. It is believed that they were driven away by long periods of drought, which alternated with extensive floods. In the years 1300 to 1450, the Hohokam civilization completely disappeared.
According to existingcountries, the city reached its peak after the Second World War, when industrial enterprises and various companies began to appear here, which attracted a lot of workers. Among the most well-known companies are Honeywell (aviation), Intel (electronics) and Phelps Dodge Corporation (mineral mining). The population grew relatively quickly. While in 1930 Phoenix had a population of 48,118, by 1950 it had 106,818 people and, according to the 1960 census, more than four times as many. The creation of Luke Air Force Base during World War II had a major impact on population growth. Even today, Phoenix is home to the largest USF fighter wing.
At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, there was also a massive development of the surrounding cities of the agglomeration and population growth, especially in the northern and western parts. Today, Phoenix covers an area of 1230.5 km2 and has a population of over 1.5 million. The entire metropolitan area is the 13th largest in the United States with more than 4 million inhabitants. Phoenix currently consists of 16 boroughs: Ahwatukee Foothills, Alhambra, Camelback East, Central City, Deer Valley, Desert View, Encanto, Estrella, Laveen, Maryvale, North Gateway, Sunnyslope, North Mountain, Paradise Valley, South Mountain and New Village.
Phoenix is also interesting in that it has the highest average maximum annual temperature of all major cities in the United States and one of the highest average summer temperatures. The temperature here exceeds 38 ° C on average more than 89 days a year. In 1990, the highest maximum temperature so far was measured, equal to 50 ° C. Winter is usually mild, temperatures usually do not fall below freezing.
Pipe Spring National Monument
Pipe Spring National Monument is a place where Native American culture clashed with the culture of white immigrants – especially Mormons. The area is located in the so-called Arizona belt, which is bordered on the south by a huge natural barrier called the Grand Canyon and on the north by the Utah border.
The first inhabitants of this area were the Pueblo and Paiute Indians, who lived here as early as 1000 years before the arrival of the first Europeans. This is evidenced by the numerous archaeological finds that have been discovered during site surveys. The centuries-long settlement was made possible by a year-round source of drinking water, so people could farm here and devote themselves to agriculture.
In 1863, the Mormons established a settlement in these places, and in 1870 they even built a fortress called Winsor Castle. The fort was to protect the Mormon population from possible attacks by Indians who were trying to defend their territory and did not want to give way to white immigrants. On December 15, 1871, the first telegraph in Arizona began operating here, connecting the place with the Salt Lake City telegraph on a separate branch branching off its transcontinental route. The Mormon population grew, as did their towns. They began to set up large farms with thousands of imported cattle. Their sheep grazed the surrounding plains.
A park was established here in 1923, after all land and real estate had been bought from private hands. Today you will find a modern museum where you can learn all about the history of the place. Also, thanks to an expert explanation, you will understand how difficult the coexistence of the Native Americans and the newly arrived whites was.
Winsor Castle has been renovated today, and at the entrance you will feel as if you have gone back in time to the second half of the 19th century. You will also be introduced to the Mormon religion and lifestyle. As this park is located near large and famous nature parks, it remains neglected by tourists and has never come to the forefront of their interest.